Diagnosis of the Psychiatric Patient

Diagnosis of the Psychiatric Patient

A sensitively crafted intake assessment can be a powerful therapeutic tool. It can establish rapport between patient and therapist, further the therapeutic alliance, alleviate anxiety, provide reassurance, and facilitate the flow of information necessary for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.
—Pamela Bjorklund, clinical psychologist
Whether you are treating patients for physical ailments or clients for mental health issues, the assessment process is an inextricable part of health care. To properly diagnose clients and develop treatment plans, you must have a strong foundation in assessment. This includes a working knowledge of assessments that are available to aid in diagnosis, how to use these assessments, and how to select the most appropriate assessment based on a client’s presentation.
This week, as you explore assessment and diagnosis of patients in mental health settings, you examine assessment tools, including their psychometric properties and appropriate uses. You also familiarize yourself with the DSM-5 classification system.
Reference: Bjorklund, P. (2013). Assessment and diagnosis. In K. Wheeler (Ed.), Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.) (pp. 95–168). Springer Publishing Company.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
•  Evaluate elements of the psychiatric interview, history, and examination
•  Analyze psychometric properties of psychiatric rating scales
• Justify appropriate use of psychiatric rating scales in advanced practice nursing

Learning Resources

https://dsm-psychiatryonline-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/doi/full/10.5555/appi.books.9780890425596.Section1
Carlat, D. J. (2017). The psychiatric interview (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
• Chapter 34, Writing Up the Results of the Interview
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
 
• Chapter 5, Examination and Diagnosis of the Psychiatric Patient
• Chapter 6, Classification in Psychiatry
• Chapter 31, Child Psychiatry (Sections 31.1 and 31.2 only)
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1995). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents. https://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/practice_parameters/psychiatric_assessment_practice_parameter.pdf
American Psychiatric Association. (2016). Practice guidelines for the psychiatric evaluation of adults (3rd ed.). https://psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.books.9780890426760
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2017). Classification in psychiatry. In Kaplan and Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 1–8). Wolters Kluwer.
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2017). Psychiatric interview, history, and mental status examination. In Kaplan and Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 9–15). Wolters Kluwer.
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2017). Medical assessment and laboratory testing in psychiatry. In Kaplan and Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 16–21). Wolters Kluwer.
 
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
https://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/practice_parameters/psychiatric_assessment_practice_parameter.pdf
https://psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.books.9780890426760
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/waldenu/reader.action?docID=5340671&ppg=20
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/waldenu/reader.action?docID=5340671&ppg=39
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/waldenu/reader.action?docID=5340671&ppg=53
https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?qurl=https://video.alexanderstreet.com/watch/diagnostic-criteria
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5KwDgWX8L8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IRiCntvec5U

Text Box: If you were to give a box of 100 different photographs to 10 people and ask them to sort them into groups, it is very unlikely that all 10 people would sort them into the exact same groups. However, if you were to give them a series of questions or a classification system to use, the chances that all 10 people sort them exactly the same increases depending on the specificity of the system and the knowledge of those sorting the photographs.Getting Started With the DSM-5

This is not unlike what has occurred in the process of classifying mental disorders. A system that provides enough specificity to appropriately classify a large variety of mental disorders while also attempting to include all of the possible symptoms, many of which can change over time, is a daunting task when used by a variety of specialists, doctors, and other professionals with varied experience, cultures, expertise, and beliefs. The DSM has undergone many transformations since it was first published in 1952. Many of these changes occurred because the uses for the DSM changed. However, the greatest changes began with the use of extensive empirical research to guide the creation of the classification system and its continued revisions.
In order to assess and diagnose patients, you must learn to use the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, usually abbreviated as the DSM-5, to render a diagnosis. In this second week of the course, you will examine how DSM-5 is organized and how clinicians use it to render diagnoses.
Review the Learning Resources this week, with special emphasis on viewing the Diagnostic Criteria video. This video explains the purpose and organization of the DSM-5 classification system, the purpose of the ICD-10 coding system, their relationship to one another, and the importance to the PMHNP role.

Discussion: The Psychiatric Evaluation and Evidence-Based Rating Scales

Assessment tools have two primary purposes: 1) to measure illness and diagnose clients, and 2) to measure a client’s response to treatment. Often, you will find that multiple assessment tools are designed to measure the same condition or response. Not all tools, however, are appropriate for use in all clinical situations. You must consider the strengths and weaknesses of each tool to select the appropriate assessment tool for your client. For this Discussion, as you examine the assessment tool assigned to you by the Course Instructor, consider its use in psychotherapy.

To Prepare:

• Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide regarding psychiatric assessment and diagnosis.
• Consider the elements of the psychiatric interview, history, and examination.
• Consider the assessment tool assigned to you by the Course Instructor.

By Day 3 of Week 2

Post a brief explanation of three important components of the psychiatric interview and why you consider these elements important. Explain the psychometric properties of the rating scale you were assigned. Explain when it is appropriate to use this rating scale with clients during the psychiatric interview and how the scale is helpful to a nurse practitioner’s psychiatric assessment. Support your approach with evidence-based literature.
Diagnostic Tool
Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Revision   
At least 3 citations

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

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  • Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, including a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words. Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source. One or two-sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words. I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

  • Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately. In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies. Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work). Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

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Familiarize yourself with the APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in Loud-cloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required). Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation. I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

  • Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage over-utilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Master’s level and deduct points accordingly. As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content. It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

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For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me. Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes. Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own? Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in Loud-cloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

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The university’s policy on late assignments is a 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies. Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances. If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect. I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension. As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

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Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class. Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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